Multiple myeloma

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What is Multiple myeloma ?

Multiple myeloma is a cancer that develops in a type of white blood cell called a tube cell. Healthy tube cells help you fight infection by making antibodies that fete and attack origins.

In multiple myeloma, cancerous tube cells accumulate in the bone gist and crowd out healthy blood cells. rather of making helpful antibodies, cancer cells make abnormal proteins that can beget complications.
Treatment for multiple myeloma isn’t always demandedimmediately.However, your healthcare may recommend close observation rather than immediate treatment, If multiple myeloma grows sluggishly and doesn’t beget signs and symptoms. For people with multiple myeloma who need treatment, there are numerous options available to help control the complaint.

Symptoms of multiple myeloma

Signs and symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary and may be absent early in the course of the disease.

When symptoms occur, they may include:

  • Bone pain, especially in your spine or chest pain
  • Nausea
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Mental fogginess or confusion
  • Tiredness
  • Frequent infections
  • Lose weight
  • Weakness or numbness in your legs
  • Excessive thirst

When to see a doctor

If you have any persistent signs and symptoms that concern you, make an appointment with your healthcare.

Causes

It is not clear what causes myeloma.

Doctors know that myeloma starts with an abnormal plasma cell in your bone marrow — the soft, blood-producing tissue that fills the center of most of your bones. Abnormal cells grow rapidly.

Because cancer cells do not mature and then die like normal cells, they accumulate, eventually overwhelming the production of healthy cells. In the bone marrow, myeloma cells crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to fatigue and an inability to fight infection.

Myeloma cells continue to try to make antibodies, just as healthy plasma cells do, but myeloma cells make abnormal antibodies that the body can’t use. Instead, abnormal antibodies (monoclonal proteins or M proteins) build up in the body and cause problems such as kidney damage. Cancer cells can damage bones, increasing the risk of fractures.

A connection to MGUS
Multiple myeloma almost always begins as a relatively benign condition called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS).

MGUS, like multiple myeloma, is characterized by the presence of M protein — produced by abnormal plasma cells — in your blood. However, in MGUS, M protein levels are low and the body is not damaged.

Risk factors

 

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Factors that may increase the threat of multiple myeloma include:

  • Aging. The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases as you age, with most people diagnosed in their mid-60s.
  • Male gender .Men are more likely to develop this disease than women.
  • Black race. Black people are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than people of the other races.
  • Family history of multiple myeloma. If a brother, sister, or parent has multiple myeloma, your risk of the disease increases.
  • Particular history of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance( MGUS). Multiple myeloma almost always starts as MGUS, so having this condition increases your risk.

How do healthcare providers diagnose multiple myeloma?

Health care providers diagnose multiple myeloma by doing a physical exam, asking about your symptoms, and asking about your family medical history.

They may perform various tests to confirm a diagnosis. Based on what they learn, they will then determine the classification of the condition so they can determine the stage of the cancer, or the size or location of the cancerous tumor(s).

What tests do doctor use to diagnose multiple myeloma?

Health care providers may perform blood tests, imaging tests, and urine tests to determine whether you have multiple myeloma and, if you do, whether your disease is early or late. Here is the specific exam information.

  • Complete blood count (CBC)
  • Blood chemistry test
  • Quantitative immunoglobulin test
  • Electrophoresis
  • Urine tests
  • X-rays
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) scan
  • Bone marrow biopsies

Can multiple myeloma be prevented?

No, there is no known way to prevent multiple myeloma. Researchers are investigating ways to prevent SMM from becoming active multiple myeloma.

What is the treatment for multiple myeloma?

 

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Healthcare providers treat multiple myeloma grounded on your symptoms and the extent of your complaint. For example, people with MGUS usually don’t need treatment, but their health care provider will closely monitor their overall health. They can also create a treatment plan so they can move quickly if symptoms occur.

Some treatments health care providers may use if you have symptoms caused by multiple myeloma:

  • Pain medication: People often have significant bone pain.
  • Antibiotics: A weakened immune system can lead to further infections. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to clear up these infections.
  • Steroids:High boluses of steroids can kill cancer cells and reduce inflammation.
  • Chemotherapy:Healthcare providers use chemotherapy to reduce the number of abnormal tube cells.
  • Immunotherapy: This treatment stimulates your immune system so it develops more cancer-fighting cells.
  • Radiation therapy:This treatment kills cancer cells and shrinks bone tumors.
  • Stem cell transplant: Stem cells are specialized cells from your bone marrow or blood that can help make healthy new plasma cells. Healthcare providers usually recommend autologous stem cell transplants. This treatment replaces damaged or unhealthy stem cells with healthy stem cells in your body. Rarely, you can receive healthy plasma stem cells from a donor. It is an allogeneic stem cell transplant.

What is the life expectancy of multiple myeloma?

Some people live 10 times or further with multiple myeloma. As with utmost types of cancer, early opinion and treatment help people live longer. In this regard, 78 of people with solitary plasmacytoma survive five times after opinion. The overall five- time survival rate for people with multiple myeloma ranges from 40 to 82. These figures are grounded on the Revised Multiple Myeloma International Staging System( R- ISS).

It’s important to note that similar numbers are pars that don’t take into account factors similar as age or overallhealth.However, your healthcare provider is your stylish resource for information about your specific situation, If you have multiple myeloma.

How do I take care of myself?

Multiple myeloma affects people in different ways. For example, people with MGUS or SSM — precancerous forms of multiple myeloma — may not need immediate treatment. They will need regular checkups and tests. If you have been diagnosed with multiple myeloma, your healthcare provider will recommend a checkup schedule and tests based on your specific situation.

If you are living with multiple myeloma, there are steps you can take to support your overall health:

  • Eat healthy food every day. Multiple myeloma can affect your appetite, so you may want to eat four or five small meals throughout the day.
  • If you smoke, try to stop.
  • Get enough rest.
  • Protect yourself from infection. Ask healthcare provider for ways to prevent infection.
  • Get some exercise, but talk to your healthcare provider first.
  • Pay attention to your mental health. It’s understandable if you’re feeling depressed about your situation.
  •  Talk to your healthcare provider if sadness and depression last longer than two weeks or interfere with your daily activities.
  • If you’re in remission, you’re probably relieved to have finished treatment, but worried that your cancer will come back. Talk to your health care provider about your condition so you know what to expect.

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